i. Permaculture is the development of agricultural ecosystems intended to be sustainable and self-sufficient. Permaculture uses all aspects and components of a farm to benefit the whole. For example; traditional farms would create a permanent location for chickens that creates an unhealthy environment for chickens, produces smell and a toxic environment. Permaculture utilizes chickens to fertilize farming land and eat pests by using portable coops or free ranging the chickens. This lessens the need for fertilizers and pesticides.
i. Aquaponics is a sustainable, organic food production system that combines a traditional aquaculture (fish farming in tanks) with hydroponics (cultivating plants in water) in a symbiotic relationship. Aquaponics takes the byproducts of fish farming and uses them to fertilize the plants, whom intern, remove toxic elements from the water for the fish.
c. Homestead Garden
i. Teaching families how to provide for the family’s needs and even produce enough marketable goods to sell.
d. Urban Gardening
i. Urban gardening is the process of growing plants of all types and varieties in an urban environment. Urban gardening, which is also known as urban horticulture or urban agriculture, encompasses several unique gardening concepts, including:
ii. Urban gardening can include container gardening, indoor gardening, community gardening, greenroofs, and aquaponics and utilizes reporposed items such as buckets, old tires, raised beds, windowboxes, kiddie pools, barrels, shoes, and watering cans – for growing all manner of plants for food or beauty.
iii. Urban gardening provides many nutritional, environmental, social, and health benefits:
1. Provides a local source of food
2. Brings communities and families together
3. Educates urban children about the origins of food
4. Can meet a substantial amount of the nutritional requirements needs of a family.
5. Saves money and promotes better health
i. Intercropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in close proximity. Intercropping is to produce a greater yield on a given piece of land by making use of resources that would otherwise not be utilized by a single crop.
f. Alley Cropping
i. An intercropping system in which crops are grown between rows of shrubs and trees, closely planted within the rows. The trees or shrubs are trimmed and the trimmings are discarded around the crop to decompose and fix valuable nutrients into the soil.
g. Fruit Trees and Grafting